While many types of primary immunodeficiency (PID) have been identified, the main types cause similar symptoms in those affected. Notably, these symptoms are:
- repeated bouts of infections that can be long-lasting and severe
- unusual infections
However, it is now recognised that PIDs may present in other ways, including in people who may have non-infectious complications such as autoimmunity, inflammatory disorders with fevers, swollen joints, rashes and bowel problems, angioedema or sometimes even cancers, particularly lymphomas.
Another useful tool is called SPURR. Here PIDs should be suspected by families and doctors in people who have Severe, Persistent, Unusual, Recurrent infections and with a history of PID Running in the family (SPURR).
This page was reviewed by Dr Matthew Buckland, Chair of Immunodeficiency UK’s Medical Advisory Panel, July 2019.